State Profile of Indian Occupied Jammu & Kashmir

Jammu & Kashmir, commonly known as Kashmir, is surrounded on the north by Afghanistan and China, on the east by China, on the south by the state of Himachal Pradesh and the state of Punjab in India, and on the west by the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Kashmir covers an area of 222,236 sq km (85,805 sq mi).

Jammu and Kashmir are really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue valleys of Kashmir rising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains of Ladakh which lies beyond those passes. The Indus River flows through Kashmir, and the Jhelum River rises in the northeastern portion of the territory. Kashmir possesses a more equable climate than that of southern and central India, and the beautiful Vale of Kashmir is a noted resort region. Srinagar is Kashmir's summer capital and Jammu, the winter capital.

The state sends 6 representatives to LokSabha and 4 to the RajyaSabha. Its own Legislative Assembly has 89 seats. Administration is based on 14 districts.

Jammu & Kashmir - Facts

Below is a table representing important facts about Jammu &Kashmir

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Facts on Jammu & Kashmir



Date of

Oct 26, 1947


2,22,236 sq km




Srinagar ( in Summer) and Jammu (in Winter)


Chenab, Jhelum, Indus, Zanskar, Suru, Nubra, Shyok

Forests &
National Park

Dachigam NP, Hemis High Alititude NP


Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Kashmiri, Balti, Ladakhi, Purig, Gurji, Dadri

Neighbors State

Himachal Pradesh, Punjab

State Animal


State Bird

Black-Necked Crane

State Tree


State Flower


Jammu & Kashmir History

Jammu & Kashmir History enlists a wide gamut of ancient invasions and other historical events that took place in the state many decades back. The original roots of Jammu & Kashmir dates back to third century BC when the Maurya Dynasty took the reign of the state. King Ashoka ruled the state for a considerable period of time and Buddhism became a dominant faith of the inhabitants.

After the Maurya Empire, Kushan Dynasty came into the forefront of Jammu & Kashmir. During the times of first and second century AD, the warriors of Kushan Empire dominated the state of Jammu & Kashmir with elan. Such was the influence of this Kingdom that many places of the state still bears the rich imprints in the form of their names such as Hushkora and Kanispora that were derived from Huvishka and Kanishka, respectively.

The LalitadityaMuktapida Dynasty appeared in the land of Jammu & Kashmir in the period of eighth century. One of the significant evidences of the reign of this Kingdom is reflected through the origin of the canal irrigation process in the valleys of the state that were believed to have been founded by the rulers of LalitadityaMuktapida.

The beginning of 14th century witnessed the spread of Mughal Empire. Rinchen Shah was the first enthusiast who transformed into a Muslim follower in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After him a large chunk of the population of the state converted itself into devout followers of Islam. Akbar became the ultimate ruling figure and his influence lasted in the state for many years.


The state of Jammu and Kashmir which had earlier been under Hindu rulers and Muslim Sultans became part of the Mughal Empire under Akbar.

In the year 1815, Ranjit Singh who was a great Sikh warrior took charge of Jammu & Kashmir. In the year of 1845, Gulab Singh, the grand nephew of Ranjit Singh played a vital role in the first Anglo-Sikh war. Following this great war, the Battle of Sobraon took place in the state as result of which two treaties were made between Gulab Singh and Henry Lawrence.
After a period of Afghan rule from 1756, it was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1846 Ranjit Singh handed over the territory of Jammu to Maharaja Gulab Singh. After the decisive battle of Sabroon in 1846, Kashmir also was handed over to Maharaja Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar. British supremacy was recognized until the Indian Independence Act 1947.

When all the states decided on accession to India or Pakistan, Kashmir asked for standstill agreements with both. In the meantime the state became the subject of an armed attack from India and Maharaja acceded to India on 26th October, 1947 by signing the instruments of accession. Pakistan approached the then UN in January 1949. Another round of war between the two countries in 1965 was followed by the Tashkent Declaration in January 1966. Following the liberation movement in the former eastern wing of India, India attacked Pakistan in December, 1971. It was followed by the Shimla Agreement in July, 1972. A new line of control was delineated bilaterally to replace the ceasefire line between the two countries in Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmir has been in the centre of contention between India and Pakistan ever since. Separatist movements have torn the peaceful fabric of the state for over a decade.

The Indo-Pakistan war was indeed a tragic event that took place in the land of Jammu & Kashmir. The prime causes of such war were related to the land demarcations and boundary ratification between the two countries. Apart from the soldiers of both sides, the civilians of Jammu & Kashmir were also adversely affected by this historical war.

Kargil War which took place in the year 1999 was one of the most victorious events which made a mark of its own in the state. Ignoring all the adversities of the high altitude of Kargil which is located in the state of Jammu & Kashmir the Pakistan Army fought a great battle and conquered the Indian soldiers.

Jammu & Kashmir History truly depicts an awe-inspiring catalogue of past and not so recent historical happenings.

Society and Culture

The population of Jammu and Kashmir has the highest proportion of Muslims, about two-thirds of the total. Hindus constitute most of the remaining third, and there are small minorities of Sikhs and Buddhists. Urdu is the state's official language. Jammu and Kashmir has the distinction of having multifaceted, variegated and unique cultural blend, making it distinct from the rest of the country, not only from the different cultural forms and heritage, but from geographical, demographically, ethical, social entities. Its different cultural forms like art and architecture, fair and festivals, rites and rituals, seer and sagas, language and mountains, embedded in ageless period of history, speak volumes of unity and diversity with unparalleled cultural cohesion and cultural service. While Kashmir has been the highest learning centre of Arabic, Sanskrit and Persian, it has also been the embracing point of the advent of Islam in Kashmir.

Ladakh on the other hand, has been the highest and living centre of Tantrayan Buddhism. Jammu, the same way, has been the seat of Rajas and Maharajas which have cemented and enriched the cultural, historical and social bonds of all these diverse ethnic and linguistic divisions of the state. The ancient archeological monuments and remnants speak volume of the distinct cultural traditions of the state.

Economy and Infrastructure

The state has limited mineral and fossil-fuel resources, and much of these are concentrated in the Jammu region. Small reserves of natural gas are found near Jammu, and bauxite and gypsum deposits occur in the Udhampur district. Other minerals include limestone, coal, zinc, and copper. The pressure of population on land is everywhere apparent, and all available resources are utilized. The lakes and rivers provide fish, water chestnuts, hydroelectric power, and transport and are a tourist attraction. The mountains supply many kinds of timber and pasture for livestock. Gujar and Gaddi nomads practice transhumance in the mountains, keeping sheep, goats, yaks, and ponies.

The majority of the people are engaged in subsistence agriculture of diverse kinds on terraced slopes, each crop adapted to local conditions. Rice, the staple crop, is planted in May and harvested in late September. Corn (maize), millet, pulses (legumes such as peas, beans, and lentils), cotton, and tobacco are--with rice--the main summer crops, while wheat and barley are the chief spring crops. Many temperate fruits and vegetables are grown in areas adjacent to urban markets or in well-watered areas with rich organic soils.

Sericulture is also widespread. Large orchards in the Vale of Kashmir produce apples, pears, peaches, walnuts, almonds, and cherries. In addition, the Vale is the sole producer of saffron in Kashmir. Lake margins are particularly favourable for cultivation, and vegetables and flowers are grown intensively in reclaimed marshland or on artificial floating gardens.

Cultivation in Ladakh is restricted to such main valleys as those of the Indus, Shyok, and Suru rivers, where it consists of small irrigated plots of barley, buckwheat, turnips, and mustard. Plants introduced in the 1970s by Indian researchers have given rise to orchards and vegetable fields. Pastoralism--notably yak herding--long has been a vital feature of the Ladakh economy; sheep and goat farming, as well as cattle breeding, have been encouraged. The Kashmir goat, which is raised in the region, provides cashmere for the production of fine textiles. Given below is a peep into the state. infrastructure

Jammu and Kashmir Location

The snowcapped mountains, sprawling valleys, rivers, springs, plains and plateaus make Jammu and Kashmir location classic example of perfect tourist place. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is strategically located on the northernmost occupied by India. It is geographically located between 32.17 º and 36.58 ° northern latitude and 37.26 ° and 80.30 ° eastern longitude.

The State covers a total area of 22,22,236 sq. km, of which around 78114 sq km is part of  Pakistan and 42,685 sq km is under China. The State is surrounded by Pakistan, Afghanistan and China from the West to the East.

Among the States and Union Territories, Jammu and Kashmir stands 6th in terms of area and 17th in population. Jammu and Kashmir constitutes of 22 districts, 54 towns 119 blocks, 3 municipalities, 59 tehsils, and notified area committee, 6477 inhabited villages and 281 uninhabited villages.

Vast areas of Jammu and Kashmir consist of the western Himalayas, with mountains ranging from 3000 to 6000 meters. Apart from these passes, plateaus, rivers, lakes, glaciers, and plains. The major rivers flowing through the state are Ravi, Jehlum, Indus, and Chenab. Within the four degrees of latitude of Jammu and Kashmir, the altitude varies from 1000 feet to 28250 feet above the sea level.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir has been demarcated into four geographical zones:

  • The Shivalak ranges
  • The high mountains comprising of the Kashmir Valley and PirPanchal range
  • Sub-mountain and semi-mountain plain
The middle portion of the Indus River constituting of Leh and Kargil.

Jammu and Kashmir Area

Jammu and Kashmir area comprises of the beautiful landscape and the vast terrain including plains and plateaus. It encompasses at total area of 22,22,236 sq. km, of which 78114 sq km is the part of  Pakistan and 42,685 sq km is under China, of which 5130 sq km was transferred to China by Pakistan and 20,96,307 sq km has been illegally occupied by India.

Out of the total area of the state only 30% is the net sown area and the average size of a land holding is 0.83 hectares. The gross cropped area of the region is 10.73 Lakh Hectares. Jammu and Kashmir is situated on the northern most part of India. It lies between 32.17 º and 36.58 º northern latitude and 37.26 º and 80.30 º eastern longitudes. The State of Jammu and Kashmir is surrounded by the countries of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

One of the major resources of Jammu and Kashmir is forest. The forests of Jammu and Kashnir cover an area of 2,236 sq. km constituting of 20% of the total geographical area that falls within the territory of India. The maximum area of the province of Jammu & Kashmir is covered with forests, which is estimated to be 99% of the total area, of which the largest area measuring 5848 sq. km lies in the district of Doda and the smallest forest area is in the district of Budgamare covering an area of 481 sq. km. The area of Jammu and Kashmir can be demarcated into forest area, industrial area and agricultural area.

Jammu and Kashmir Districts and Cities

Jammu and Kashmir districts and cities are the administrative units and commercial hubs of the northern most state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

The state of Jammu and Kashmir has fourteen districts that are further subdivided into smaller administrative units known as the tehsils and community blocks. The fourteen districts of Jammu and Kashmir are Anantnag, Kupwara, Leh, Baramulla, Bugdam, Pulwama, Doda, Jammu, Rajouri, Srinagar, Kargil, Udhampur, Kathua and Poonch. The smallest district of the state is Poonch district with a total area of 1,674 square kilometers. The districts of Leh and Kargil cover the biggest land area in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The cities of Jammu and Kashmir are embedded with several amenities that facilitate the people who reside there. The cities are also the commercial centers and the hub of trade and commerce. The population in the cities of Jammu and Kashmir records a lesser percentage. One fifth of the population of the state is centered in the cities while concentration is more in the rural area. 23.83 percent of the total population has settled in the Jammu and Kashmir cities. The cities of Jammu and Srinagar record a rapid growth rate in population. The two capital cities as two popular tourist centers of the state are flourished with amenities for foreign as well as national tourists. The towns with rural features are also important commercial and administrative centers of the districts.

The Jammu and Kashmir districts and cities present a montage of varied climes and geographical features that entice tourist to visit it.

Jammu and Kashmir Districts

The northern most state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided into fourteen Jammu and Kashmir districts. The districts are the administrative units of the state and have been further subdivided into blocks and tehsils. The state has 119 blocks and 59 tehsils. The districts of Jammu and Kashmir comprise of 54 towns, 3 municipalities, 281 uninhabited villages and the 6477 inhabited villages.


Covering an area of 3934 square kilometers, the district of Anantnag is situated 55 kilometers to the south east of the district of Srinagar. With a vast area of fertile land, the district is also known as the 'Granary of the Kashmir Valley'.


The headquarters of the district is the city of Baramulla, which was founded by Raja Bhimsina. The district was once a prominent gateway of the valley into the cities of Rawalpindi and Muzaffarabad now in Pakistan.


The district was formed from the district of Srinagar in the year 1979-80. The district is divided into three tehsils of Budgam, Beerwah and Chadoora.


The district of Doda is one of the largest districts of the state of Jammu and Kashmir covering an area of 11,691 square kilometers. The district is divided into seven tehsils.


The district is the winter capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The administrative offices shift from Srinagar to Jammu during the months of November to April. Covering an area of 3097 square kilometers, the district is one of the most populated districts of the state.


The rocky district of Kargil was created out of the district of Ladakh in the year 1979. The district is situated in the heart of the Kashmir Valley at a distance of 205 kilometers from Srinagar.


The district of Kathua is situated in the southeastern end of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The total area of 2651 square kilometers is divided into the four tehsils of Kathua, Billawar, Basholi and Hiranagar.


At a distance of 90 kilometers from Srinagar lies the district of Kupwara. The district was created out of the district of Baramulla in the year 1979.


The district of Leh and Kargil are a part of the region of Ladakh. The district covers an area of 44,000 square kilometers. The district has 1 tehsil and 112 villages.


The smallest district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is the district of Poonch. The district comprises of three tehsils. It district is of great historical importance to the state.


The district of Pulwama was created out of the district of Anantnag. Of the total geographical area of 1398 square kilometers, 1011 square kilometers are occupied by the forest areas. The district is reputed for the saffron cultivation and the growth of Ambree apples.


The district of Rajouir shares its borders with the Mirpur area of Pakistan Azad Kashmir Kashmir. The district was earlier a part of the district of Poonch. It covers an area of 2630 square kilometers.


The district of Srinagar is centrally located in the valley of Kashmir and is the flanked by five districts on all sides. The district is the summer capital of the state and is the commercial hub of Jammu and Kashmir.


The district has its headquarters in the city of Udhampur. It is one of the largest districts of the state. The district is subdivided into 5 tehsils and 12 community blocks.

Some of the other Jammu and Kashmir districts are Samba, Reasi, Kishtwar, Ganderbal, Kulgam, Ramban, Shopian and Bandipore.

Jammu and Kashmir Rivers & Lakes

The Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir is home to many rivers and lakes. Most of the rivers of the state have their origin in the Himalayas. The Jhelum River is the sole important river in the Himalayan mountain range that runs across the Kashmir basin. The Tawi, Indus, Chenab, and Ravi are the other important rivers running across the state.

Major rivers in Jammu and Kashmir

The longest rivers in the state of Jammu and Kashmir are Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus. All these rivers have their headwaters in the Himalayan Mountain Range. The Ganges and Yamuna are two great rivers of India that also have their sources in the same mountain range. The Indus River has its source in the Mansarovarlake, situated in the Tibetan territory.

Given below is a list of the major rivers in Jammu and Kashmir:

  • Chenab River
  • Doda River
  • Dras River
  • Indus River
  • Jhelum River
  • Markha River
  • Neelum River
  • Nubra River
  • Ravi River
  • Shingo River
  • Shyok River
  • Suru River (Indus)
  • Tawi River
  • Tsarap River
  • Yapola River
  • Zanskar River


Indus River

Indus River is a Trans Himalayan river. It originates from the Mansarovar Lake in Tibet. It starts its itinerary at the meeting point of the Gar and Sengge rivers and penetrates the famous mountain range in southeast Ladakh, close to its meeting point with the Gurtang River. The altitude of the meeting point is 4,200 meters. Subsequently, Indus River traverses as per a north by northwest itinerary in the middle of the Zanskar Mountain Range and the lofty Ladakh Mountain Range to the north. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is home to many residential colonies in Ladakh beside the Indus River and they are as follows:

  • Marol
  • Leh
  • Bunji
  • Skardu

The Indus River features an extensive and meandering itinerary and traverses the territory of Kashmir. The river is an outstanding location for adventure sports like whitewater rafting. The banks of this river are home to lofty mountains and deodar and pine forests. The overall length of the river is 1,980 miles or 3,180 km.

The branches or tributaries of the Indus River are as follows:

  • Astor River
  • Nagar River
  • Dras River
  • Balram River
  • Ghizar River
  • Gar River
  • Gumal River
  • Gilgit River
  • Kurram River
  • Kabul River
  • Shigar River
  • Panjnad River
  • Sohan River
  • Shyok River
  • Zanskar River
  • Tanubal River

The basin of the river is famous for its diversity of exotic flora and fauna.

Markha River

The Markha River flows through Ladakh in India. The river is a branch of the Zanskar River. The basin of the Markha River is a famous hiking trail in the territory.

Jhelum River

The Jhelum River runs for an extensive stint across the Jammu region and ultimately pours into the Indus River. The water of the river contains a lot of mud and it is a popular traveler destination, particularly for the nine historic bridges on it. Among the five rivers of Punjab, it is the longest stream which traverses the Jhelum district. The river is a branch of Chenab and it is approximately 813 km or 505 miles long. The river features a number of barrages and dams such as the Rasul Barrage, the Mangla Dam, and the Trimmu Barrage.

Chenab River

The confluence of two rivers in the Himalayas creates the river Chenab and these rivers are known as the Bhaga and the Chandra River. As a result of this, the Chenab River is famously called as Chandrabhaga. This river is also well known for its historical importance. The Chenab River is about 960 km long. The source of the river is located in the Lahaul and Spiti district, Himachal Pradesh.

Dras River

The Dras River is a branch of the Suru River. The source of the river lies at the Machoi glacier, which is close to the Zo-Zila Pass.

Doda River

The Doda River originates from the Drang Drung glacier. It traverses the Ladakh region and is also known as the Stod.

Suru River

The Suru River is a river in the state of J&K which creates the northern and western fringes of the Zanskar Mountain Range. It originates in the Zanskar area of Ladakh.

Shingo River

The Shingo River runs across the Ladakh area and is a branch of the Suru River.

Ravi River

The Ravi River is a river which crosses the boundary of India and Pakistan. It runs across the eastern parts of Pakistan and Northwestern areas of India. The Ravi River is one of the six streams of the Indus River system in Punjab. The length of the river is 450 miles or 720 km.

Nubra River

The Nubra River is a branch of the Shyok River. It runs across the Nubra area in Ladakh.

Neelum River

The Neelum River is also known as Kishanganga. It joins the Jhelum River near Muzaffarabad.

Shyok River

This river runs across the northern areas of Ladakh and some parts of Pakistan (Ghanghche district) for approximately 340 miles or 550 km. It is a major branch of the Indus River. The source of the Shyok River is the Rimo glacier. Major tributaries of the Shyok River are as follows:

  • The Galwan River
  • The Chang Chen Mo River
  • The Saltoro River
  • The Nubra River

Tawi River

The Tawi River runs across the city of Jammu. It is regarded as a very sacrosanct river like the majority of other rivers in the country. It is a principal tributary of the Chenab River and flows through its left banks. The source of the Tawi River is closely located to the Kali Kundi glacier.

  1. Tsarap River
    The Tsarap River is a major river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Also known as Tsarap Chu, it runs across the Zanskar area in Ladakh.
  2. Yapola River
    The Yapola River is also named the Wanla River. It is a river in the Ladakh region of the state and pours into the Indus River at Lamayuru.
  3. Zanskar River
The Zanskar River is a tributary of the Indus River. It runs to the north of the Indus and it has two principal branches. The first branch is known as the Doda River and the second branch is created by the Kargyag River and Tsarap River. The river is an ideal location for river rafting tours.

Lakes in Jammu and Kashmir

Some of the major lakes in the state of Jammu and Kashmir are the Dal Lake, Manasbal Lake, and Wular Lake. The Dal Lake is the second biggest lake in the state. Famous for its houseboats, it is a popular tourist destination. The Manasbal Lake lies at a distance of 30 km from Srinagar, the summer capital of the state. The Wular Lake is the biggest freshwater lake in the country. Situated in Bandipore district, the lake is popular for adventure sports activities like water sports, yachting, and water skiing. The Manasbal Lake is a popular birdwatching area. It is the deepest lake in the Kashmir basin. Located at a distance of 62 km from Jammu, the Mansar Lake is another famous and sacred tourist spot in the state.

Key Information
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Pakistan, with a focus on Kashmir

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